It killed between five and nine people in Wellington, Manawatū and Wairarapa and radically altered the landscape of the Wellington region. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake . To the west of the Tararua Ranges are the Manawatu coastal plains. There was one death in Wellington, on 24 June. Damage to at least 95 unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings resulted in 272 deaths, and damage to five reinforced concrete (RC) buildings resulted in 145 deaths. [10] New Zealand's National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research created an animated tsunami simulation model based on the 1855 Wairarapa event, which was screened on the television tele-drama "Aftershock". "Historic earthquakes – The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake". The quake, estimated at magnitude 8.2, raises parts of the Wellington harbour foreshore by as much as 6 … ↑ "GeoNet – Quakes". Four people were killed and the landscape of the Wellington region was changed significantly. 23 January: The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake causes extensive damage but few deaths. In Wellington, close to the epicenter, shaking lasted for at least 50 seconds. Now covered in vegetation, the slip is distinguished by its slope, which is shallower than the surrounding hills. Retrieved 3 September 2016. It forms part of the Marlborough Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate, from the transform Alpine Fault to the Hikurangi Trench subduction zone. Wairarapa earthquake Happened in 1855 - 7-9 people died 1863. January 1855. Growth slowed from the 1930s. January 26 – The Point No Point Treaty is signed in the Washington Territory . The Hope Fault is an active dextral strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand. Rodney Grapes and Gaye Downes . "Initial results show that one of these landslides in particular occurred recently, and may have been caused by the magnitude 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake in 1855." [Denton, Frank J, 1869-1963. Caused by movement along a fault in Palliser Bay, it altered the landscape of the Wellington region and affected its subsequent urban development. Newcastle earthquake. The earthquake caused extensive damage to buildings, and a 36-hour fire in central Napier which gutted almost 11 blocks. Intensity of the earthquake. [GNS Science], Lambton Quay, Wellington, looking south from Brandon's Corner 1860. The earthquake originated on the Wairarapa Fault and caused extensive faulting and uplift in epicentral areas. Wairarapa earthquake, 1855. A total of 1112 aftershocks were recorded, ranging between magnitudes 2.0 and 4.9 on the Richter Scale. The latter was most dramatic at Muka Muka, on the western side of Palliser Bay, where the ground was raised by 2.7m. At 9:11pm, on 23 January 1855, the southern part of the North Island was struck by a magnitude 8.2 earthquake, the most powerful ever recorded in New Zealand. Caused by movement along a fault in Palliser Bay, it altered the landscape of the Wellington region and affected its subsequent urban development. Daytime earthquakes were more deadly than nighttime earthquakes, and mortality rates … Magnitude: 7.5 Death Toll: N/A Shaking continued for two minutes in Wellington and caused massive widespread damage. Retrieved 26 December 2011. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 8.2 on the Richter scale, making it the largest recorded earthquake in New Zealand. In Wellington, close to the epicenter, shaking lasted for at least 50 seconds. The sparsely settled region of the Southern Alps shook for four minutes. ↑ "Where were New Zealand's largest earthquakes?". During the great Wairarapa earthquake of 1855, Charles was caught in the Hutt Valley at a friend’s house, which fell down around their ears. It was centred in the Wairarapa, but once again it was Wellington that experienced the most damage. licensed under a Creative Commons It caused a devastating tsunami which led to several thousand fatalities. The first large earthquake that they had felt had taken place on 16 October 1… The region had already experienced several large earthquakes, the very large 1855 Wairarapa Earthquake, and the 1934 Pahiatua earthquake in the Northern Wairarapa.. Quetzaltenango, Guatemala 1902 Guatemala earthquake struck on April 18, 1902 at 20:23:50 hrs. Caused by movement along a fault in Palliser Bay, it altered the landscape of the Wellington region and affected its subsequent urban development. GNS Science. Deaths occurred during aftershock. The country’s worst shake in historic times, in January 1855, had frightened the first generation of settlers, but things were not so bad for the next forty-nine years. Although the later Murchison and Napier earthquakes claimed more lives, neither created the geological upheaval wrought by the Wairarapa earthquake of 1855." GeoNet content is copyright GNS Science and is The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake and tsunami leaves nine dead in New Zealand. It killed between five and nine people in Wellington, Manawatū and Wairarapa and radically altered the landscape of the Wellington region. The United States Geological Survey reported a magnitude of 6.0 Mw and a depth of 9 km (5.6 mi). In 1855 an earthquake (The "1855 Wairarapa earthquake") struck the area, raising the coastline and creating flat land for settlement in and around the harbour. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand, including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island. GNS Science. Intensity of the earthquake. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Wairarapa earthquake earthquake Earthquake of 1855 The 1848 earthquake, centred in Marlborough, caused great damage to the brick and masonry buildings in Wellington, and the city was rebuilt mainly in wood; consequently it suffered comparatively little damage in the 8.2 magnitude earthquake of 1855, which lifted the land 2–3m. Land was reclaimed to form what is now the central city. The earthquake triggered extensive landsliding on both faces of the Rimutaka Ranges, along the Kaikoura coast and in Wellington, where access to Petone was cut off when a large landslide containing ~300,000 m3 of material cascaded down to block the coastal track north. GeoNet is a collaboration between the Earthquake The epicentre was approximately 35 kilometres (22 mi) west of Hanmer. ↑ "GeoNet – Quakes". Commission, Creative Commons 23 January: The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake causes extensive damage but few deaths. Apr 19, 1902. The Marlborough Fault System is a set of four large dextral strike-slip faults and other related structures in the northern part of South Island, New Zealand, which transfer displacement between the mainly transform plate boundary of the Alpine fault and the mainly destructive boundary of the Kermadec Trench, and together form the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates. Cause: Earthquake in Wairarapa; The 9:32pm, 23 January 1855 M 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake generated New Zealand’s largest historical locally-generated tsunami. The Wairau Fault is an active dextral strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand. On 23 January 1855 the region was hit by the strongest earthquake recorded in New Zealand, which reached Magnitude 8.1 on the Richter Scale. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. The 1855 earthquake occurred on the Wairarapa Fault which is part of the North Island Fault System. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. In the Wairarapa, several Māori (their reported number varies from two to six), were killed when a wharecollapsed. Apr 19, 1902. Intensity of the earthquake. [Gold, Charles Emilius 1809-1871. One … Damage to at least 95 unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings resulted in 272 deaths, and damage to five reinforced concrete (RC) buildings resulted in 145 deaths. It forms part of the North Island Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. ", National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Charles Lyell and the 1855 Wairarapa earthquake in New Zealand: Recognition of fault rupture accompanying an earthquake, Terminations of large strike-slip faults: an alternative model from New Zealand, Hope Fault, Jordan Thrust, and uplift of the Seaward Kaikoura Range, New Zealand, "World's largest coseismic strike-slip offset: The 1855 rupture of the Wairarapa Fault, New Zealand, and implications for displacement/length scaling of continental earthquakes", "Massive earthquake hits southern North Island", "Historic earthquakes – The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake", Canterbury Earthquake Response and Recovery Act 2010, Lyttelton Road Tunnel Administration Building, Canterbury Earthquake Commemoration Day Act 2011. [6]. Much of modern Wellington's central business district is formed from land raised from the harbour by the event, as shown by the series of "Shoreline 1840" plaques. Earthquake-related deaths were caused by building damage (431 deaths, 88%), ground damage (34 deaths, 7%), or other causes (24 deaths, 5%). The documents examined include contemporary diaries, letters and journals, newspaper reports and articles, archives, memoranda and reports of the Wellington Provincial Government as well as later reminiscences, extracts from … The 1855 earthquake occurred on the Wairarapa Fault which is part of the North Island Fault System.. 24 June 1942. The earthquake was followed by many aftershocks, some of which were very damaging. The 1843 Whanganui earthquake occurred on 8 July at 16:45 local time with an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Mw scale. Surprisingly there is no comprehensive account other than that of the great British geologist, Sir Charles Lyell, based on information given to … Retrieved 22 November 2016. It has been suggested that this was caused by the rupture propagating down to where the fault links through to the top of the subducting Pacific Plate. ↑ "Earthquakes". Numerous landslides were reported along the slopes of the Rimutaka Range. Due to data availability, reporting and evidence, it's expected that more recent data will be more complete than the long historical record. Cause: Earthquake in Wairarapa; The 9:32pm, 23 January 1855 M 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake generated New Zealand’s largest historical locally-generated tsunami. ↑ "Where were New Zealand's largest earthquakes?". Despite the violence of the 1855 earthquake (with an estimated strength of 8.0-8.2 on the Richter scale), there were few fatalities. 1855 The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, a … The sole casualty in Wellington was Baron von Alzdorf, who died when a brick chimney in his hotel collapsed. There were five deaths. Ref #: B-103-016], The large landslide shown in C. E. Gold’s painting is still visible on the Hutt Road today. Magnitude: 7.5 Death Toll: N/A Shaking continued for two minutes in Wellington and caused massive widespread damage. Find out more on Te Ara. The epicentre is estimated to have been within a zone extending 50 km northeast from Whanganui towards Taihape. Surprisingly few people were injured. Seismotectonics is the study of the relationship between the earthquakes, active tectonics and individual faults of a region. The 1929 Arthur's Pass earthquake occurred at 10:50 pm NZMT on 9 March. ↑ "Earthquakes". The region had already experienced several large earthquakes, the very large 1855 Wairarapa Earthquake, and the 1934 Pahiatua earthquake in the Northern Wairarapa. GNS Science has this earthquake catalogued and places the epicenter 35 km east of Taihape, near the border of Hawke's Bay. The evening of 23 January 1855 was the end of a two-day holiday, the 15th anniversary of Wellington’s founding. In the South Island most of the relative displacement between these plates is taken up along a single dextral (right lateral) strike-slip fault with a major reverse component, the Alpine Fault. The quake, estimated at magnitude 8.2, raises parts of the Wellington harbour foreshore by as much as 6 metres. Rapid residential development took place from the 1880s into the 1920s, spurred by commercial and industrial growth and improved access. [8] [9], The earthquake generated New Zealand's largest historical locally generated tsunami, with a maximum run-up of 10–11 m (33–36 ft). Land was reclaimed to form what is now the central city. 24 June 1942. Wellington experienced severe shaking but the resulting damage was reduced as the city had been extensively rebuilt following the 1848 Marlborough earthquake using mainly wooden structures; only one recorded fatality (in a brick building) occurred. Retrieved 22 November 2016. 1855 Wairarapa New Zealand; Date: January 23, 1855 () Magnitude: 8.2: Depth: 33 km: Epicenter location: Wairarapa North Island: Countries or regions affected: New Zealand: Casualties: 5-9 deaths 1.1 billion $ damage MM VIII in the Newcastle area. Wairarapa (magnitude 8.2): This is the most powerful recorded earthquake in New Zealand and resulted from movement at least 140 kilometres along the Wairarapa Fault, on the eastern edge of the Rimutaka Range. 1855 The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, a … The 2010 Glendale earthquake … The earthquake was associated with the rupturing of approximately 150 km (93 mi) of the Wairarapa Fault. The last major earthquake on the Alpine Fault was in c. 1717 AD, the probability of another one occurring within the next 50 years is estimated at about 30 percent. January 27 – The Panama Railway becomes the first railroad to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Contempo­rary accounts put these at 10, compared to 17 in the 1929 Murchison earthquake and 256 in the 1931 Napier earthquake. Attribution 3.0 New Zealand License. The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. The moment magnitude of the earthquake has been estimated as 8.2, the most powerful recorded in New Zealand since systematic European colonisation began in 1840. The 1855 Wairarapa Earthquake was a significant event in the lives of the people affected. There is strong evidence that the earthquake generated a local tsunami and it is also possible that small tsunami accompanied some aftershocks. Significant uplift also occurred in Wellington City, most noticeably around Wellington Harbour, altering the city's shoreline considerably. It was centred at a depth of 7 km (4.3 mi), about 5 km (3 mi) south-east of Christchurch, which had previously been devastated by a magnitude 6.2 MW earthquake in February 2011. Its epicenter was near Cañete, Chile. The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 Mw earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST. 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