This region, anchored by North America’s largest metropolis, New York, is the economic heart of the United States and Canada and home to more than a third of each country’s population. It is part of the larger pattern of Americans flocking to the Sun Belt, searching for an attractive climate and lifestyle. What have been the main economic activities in the far north. Examine the environmental and social costs to rapid growth in the West. The far northern stretches of North America are sparsely populated, with an economy based on primary industries such as forestry and extraction. They are small in number and traditionally make a living by hunting and fishing. The two areas are quite different from each other in terms of climate and economy. What makes the Pacific Coast region an unstable place for human development? Utah grew 24.7 percent, Idaho grew 19.5 percent, and Colorado grew 16.8 percent. Since then, Quebec’s economy has developed to include a manufacturing sector (fueled by abundant hydroelectricity), tourism, and a variety of tertiary and quaternary industries. Most of the region’s population is urban, and Los Angeles and its metropolitan area is by far the largest area of settlement. Henk Sijgers – A direct line to city hall – CC BY-NC 2.0. According to some authorities, North America begins not at the Isthmus of Panama but at the narrows of Tehuantepec, with the intervening region called Central America. If it were an independent country, California would be the world’s sixth-largest economy. Three of … Maine’s leading economic activity is manufacturing, and the bulk of it is oriented around paper and other wood products. Understand the patterns of population growth or decline for the various regions. The Pacific Coast includes the coastal portions of California, Oregon, and Washington, plus the southwestern portion of British Columbia in Canada. 66.6%. Besides agriculture, the economic base of the Pacific Coast is quite diverse and rich. One of the Pollen Trail Dancers, a Navajo group near Joseph City, Arizona, performs the Eagle Dance on September 21, 2010, on the scenic South Rim of Grand Canyon National Park between Hopi House and Verkamp’s Visitor Center. We promote the cultivation, conservation, and knowledge of rock garden plants, their value, habits and geographical distribution. These elements include metals such as cerium, terbium, dysprosium, and neodymium. Twenty-one federally recognized tribes with more than 250,000 people (4.9 percent of the state’s population) live in Arizona, and their reservations and traditional communities make up more than one-fourth of the state’s land. Why does the desert region of the American Southwest continue to attract a growing population? First are the native peoples who have always lived there. The North, both Canada and Alaska, is also known for its large native populations. Figure 4.36 Rocky Mountains of Western Montana on US Highway 2. Residents of these cities work in high-tech manufacturing, health care, business, and information. This water comes from snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains far to the east, and due to drought and high water demand, Lake Mead’s water level has been dropping. Piedmont - This is the region lying below the Appalachian Mountains and like the Coastal Plain, was once thickly covered with hardwood forests of oak, hickory, pine, poplar, and sycamore. Figure 4.30 Long Lot Farms Typical in French Canada. The climate is similar to that of Russia: cold continental and arctic climates, arctic air masses swooping down from the north, and long winters. Las Vegas, for example, is a desert city that gets 90 percent of its water from a Colorado River reservoir: Lake Mead. The economy of North America comprises more than 579 million people (8% of the world population) in its 23 sovereign states and 15 dependent territories.It is marked by a sharp division between the predominantly English speaking countries of Canada and the United States, which are among the wealthiest and most developed nations in the world, and countries of Central America and the … What is fueling this growth? The core region contains the Manufacturing/Rust Belt, which was once the main manufacturing region for North America but suffered decline with the advent of the information age. Why is there a difference between where spring wheat and winter wheat is grown? The part of the craton where the basement rock is exposed is called the Canadian Shield. The Bluegrass Basin, or Bluegrass Plains, nevertheless extends the region of low relief and highly productive agriculture into the margins of the Appalachian Plateau. It also includes southern Ontario, Canada’s capital (Ottawa), and its largest city (Toronto). 11.9%. This region, especially the Great Plains, is experiencing a period of long-term population decline and aging. Twelve percent of the US population lives in California (thirty-seven million people), and the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area has nearly eighteen million people. This is putting stress on the physical environment (particularly its water resources) and made the region susceptible to the real estate bubble collapse. The Pacific Northwest is home to major corporations such as Boeing (whose headquarters recently moved to Chicago), Microsoft, and other famous companies such as Starbucks, Amazon.com, REI, T-Mobile, Costco, and Eddie Bauer. To kick things off, North America is made up of Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, the countries of Central America, the Caribbean Islands and many bordering islands. Which statement best defines the North American Core? One of the richest Americans, Bill Gates, lives near Seattle. Figure 4.37 Urban Growth in Las Vegas, Nevada, from 1984 to 2009. The heart of the spring wheat belt is North Dakota, and the crop is also common in eastern Montana and in Canada’s Prairie Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. b) It incorporates the subsidiary cores of California, Texas, and Florida into a continent-wide network. The Houston metropolitan area is not far behind with 6.1 million residents. The Southwest has a strong Hispanic heritage and was part of Spain’s Mexican colony before England established colonies on the East Coast (the first Spanish settlers arrived in New Mexico in 1598). The greatest east-west distance in the 48 contiguous states of the country is 4,500 km. The North American Core region is also known as the a Main Street Megalopolis b from SOCIAL SCI 2603 at Oklahoma City Community College Notice the dark purple of city streets and the bright green of irrigated vegetation. Vancouver began as a logging town but developed into its position as the Asian gateway to Canada because of its port, the busiest in Canada. Select the geographic realm to view related library resources. The Pacific tectonic plate is moving northward relative to the North American plate. Five of these regions extend across the U.S. - Canada border. Coal mining was a major source of employment in places such as West Virginia and eastern Kentucky for the first two-thirds of the twentieth century, but increased mechanization of mining methods, as well as new mining techniques such as mountaintop removal mining, decreased the number of miners needed, even as coal production increased. The economic core of North America is located in the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Arctic Ocean to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the west. 3.48M. 6.2%. Surrounding this is a stable platform where the basement is covered by sediment; and surrounding that are a series of orogenic zones. As of early 2011, three of the five states with the highest foreclosure rates were in this region (Nevada, Utah, and Idaho), and the others were bordering states (Arizona and California). The stable core of the continent is the North American Craton. North America is the World’s third-largest continent – 24,474,000 km² covering approximately 16.5% of the Earth’s land and 5% of the Earth’s surface. If current patterns persist, Las Vegas will have a water crisis soon. She is located in Ellis Island/New York City/New Jersey. Well into the twentieth century, the region remained rural and economically deprived. A human characteristic is a man-made sculpture, building, or a park. Northern New England transitions to the even more rugged and remote uplands of the Canadian Maritimes: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland and Labrador. The North American Core Area is the Canadian Shield. 37.4M. Nearly all the growth is occurring in urban and suburban areas. Hoefer, M., Nancy Rytina, and Bryan C. Baker, “Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2008,” Department of Homeland Security, accessed September 20, 2011, http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/ois_ill_pe_2008.pdf. The Mountain West is growing rapidly, especially in its urban and suburban areas. Detailed Description. The North American Manufacturing Core Manufacturing is found throughout the more populated Before the Civil War, the coastal plain was dedicated to plantation agriculture using African slave labor. Figure 4.32 Acres of Corn Harvested for Grain as a Percentage of Harvested Cropland Acreage, 2007. Trees in this region are nut bearing and provided a staple to the Native American diet. In 2008, the US Department of Homeland Security’s Office of Immigration Statistics estimated that Arizona had one of the fastest-growing illegal immigrant populations in the country at 8.4 percent of the population (Hoefer, M., et. The circular fields are between a half-mile and mile in diameter, and are characteristic of fields that use center-pivot irrigation. Availability to transport resources, raw materials and the finished product. US Census Bureau, “State & County QuickFacts,” http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html. The South includes the entire southeastern portion of the United States from Kentucky south to Louisiana, east to Florida, and north to Virginia. In Nunavut, the native population is about 85 percent of the total 30,000 residents, living in a territory the size of Western Europe. Water is often pumped to the surface using a system called center pivot irrigation. 0.6%. However, both areas are part of the so-called Ring of Fire that encircles the Pacific Ocean. Many of the migrants come from southern California because the housing in the Mountain West is more affordable and the region is much less crowded. According to the 2010 census, about 46 percent of New Mexico’s population was Hispanic or Latino, and in Texas and Arizona the figures were 37 percent and 30 percent, respectively (US Census Bureau). As you move north from Boston, the terrain becomes more rugged and the soil less fertile. This has fueled a period of urbanization and economic growth, and the newfound prosperity has helped integrate the South into the nation’s economy. Southern New England began as an agricultural and fishing colony, and as industry developed in the nineteenth century, the region attracted European immigrants from Ireland, Italy, and elsewhere to work in its factories. The Northeastern Core includes the upper Midwest (Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan); the mid-Atlantic states of Pennsylvania, New York, Maryland, and New Jersey plus northern Virginia; and the southern New England states of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts. Why does the Pacific Coast region have both high agricultural production and large high-tech urban cities? Two groups of people live in this region. New England and the Canadian Maritimes overlap with the Northeastern Core because its major city—Boston—is considered the northern edge of the megalopolis. It developed as the region’s most important city in the mid-nineteenth century, as it controlled access through the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes. Most of the region’s population is urban, and Los Angeles and its metropolitan area is by far the largest area of settlement. Scope: population of the United States and the Northeast. Closer to the Rocky Mountains, the land is typically used for raising cattle, but enormous grain farms are found where water is available (especially through irrigation). Newfoundland, including Labrador, is Canada’s poorest province. California is also famous for its wine production, especially in Napa Valley near San Francisco. Throughout most of its history, the people of Quebec have been rural farmers, eking out a living on less-than-ideal land in a place with a short growing season. It is of sufficient size that its northern reaches are fully Arctic and its southern reaches are fully tropical. Detroit, for instance, has lost 61 percent of its population since 1950, and the decline continues. Where would they be most prominent? See the recommended library items below to begin your research. Pollution. Jobs have been created in recreation (gambling, skiing), in high-tech firms, and in other tertiary sector industries. Quantity, quality and location of natural resourcesof natural resources. During this time, immigration and natural growth … The water for irrigation comes from the continent’s largest aquifer, the Ogallala Aquifer. Mount St. Helen’s is a volcano in the Cascades that erupted in 1980, killing fifty-seven people and destroying hundreds of square miles of forest. One unique characteristic of the farms in French Canada is their size and shape. Identify the following key places on a map: Archibold, R. C., “Arizona Enacts Stringent Law on Immigration,” New York Times, April 23, 2010, accessed September 20, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/24/us/politics/24immig.html. The Pacific Coast region is prone to earthquakes and volcanic activity, yet it is home to the second-largest metropolitan area in the United States and is known for its rich, diverse economic base. The highly skilled workforce helped maintain a strong economy in southern New England, although there have been times of increased unemployment and economic hardship. In some areas the large population is putting a strain on physical resources, such as water. However, in the late 2000s the real estate market collapsed in many parts of the country, and Western cities were hard hit. There is no grass to mow, and cactus and palm trees are common. Figure 4.33 Satellite Image of Corn, Sorghum, and Wheat Fields in Southwestern Kansas. Determine which regions have significant minority groups and why. North American Core This region is synonymous with the American Manufacturing belt and serves as link of spatial economies of both US and Canada. From what plants to grow and how to grow them, join our society to read the latest Rock Garden Quarterly or engage in our annual Seed Exchange. It became a diverse industrial center, with oil refineries, steel mills, flour and sugar refineries, and shop yards for railroad companies. From the Rocky Mountains to the Sierra Nevada and the Cascades and the Intermontane Basins and Plateaus in between, this part of North America has gone from the old Wild West to an area of rapid economic and population growth. One of the most famous high-tech industries in Texas is space: Houston is home to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, where astronauts and thousands of others work in the space industry. However, the rapid growth of the West since 1990 has come at a cost. Boundaries of the North American Manufacturing Core Megalopolis, and the group of large urban regions between Milwaukee and Chicago on the west, and Cleveland and Pittsburgh on the east. 6.66M. This land-use pattern was common throughout French Canada and can even be seen today in the United States in former French colonies such as Tennessee and Louisiana. Why does the population continue to increase in the American West? Nearly one-third of its residents are of Chinese origin, and more than half its population speak a language other than English at home. When people think about geography, they're typically thinking in terms of physical features: the mountains, the plains, etc. But, when's the last time someone asked where you were going over spring break and you answered 'the subtropical barrier islands in the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway'? Name the key characteristics of the regions of the United States and Canada. Figure 4.34 Typical Home in a Phoenix Suburb, Where Water Is a Valued Commodity. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Fishing and other sea-oriented businesses have historically been strong here, but in recent decades overfishing of the North Atlantic has caused a decline in the fishing economy. 1.8%. At the same time, Reuters reported that the when the bill was debated in the Arizona senate, the number of illegal immigrants was listed at 10 percent of the population (Reuters, 2011). In the air, soil, and water. In north-central Kentucky is a large basin many would argue does not belong within the continent's Agricultural Core. Despite the continued swaths of poverty in the South, parts of the region have prospered in the past generation as Sun Belt migrants have moved to southern places such as Atlanta, Charlotte, Tampa, Miami, and dozens of smaller cities. The other residents are more recent immigrants who are there to exploit the land’s natural resources. Reuters, April 19, 2010, “Arizona Passes Tough Illegal Immigration Law,” accessed September 20, 2011, http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/04/19/us-immigration-usa-arizona-idUSTRE63I6TU20100419. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. Early on, the farms were laid out as long lots, maximizing the number of farms that would have access to the transportation artery—usually a river, but sometimes a road. World Regional Geography by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. We don't always talk in terms of physical geography, because that's not always how we think. What is the purpose of long lots? The U.S. population is about ten times Canada’s population. The Pacific Coast region is also famous for its agriculture. When other parts of the country are still frozen in the winter months, the fields of the Central Valley are already producing bountiful harvests. Figure 4.39 The Pacific Ocean from Venice Beach in Los Angeles. Percentage of the total population. Names often reflect the cultural region of their location. The port of Los Angeles is the busiest in North America, receiving shipments of goods from China and other Asian countries. This large region includes geographic swaths of both wealth and economic suffering. Discover NAMB, sending thousands of missionaries, chaplains, and church planters on mission through evangelism and compassion in North America. The states of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona are considered the Southwest. Explain how physical geography has contributed to economic activities. As settlement and colonization expanded, people moved steadily westward, still primarily situating close to waterways. The climate gets more arid as you move west, but through irrigation, agricultural productivity remains high. This physical map of the US shows the terrain of all 50 states of the USA. Agriculture and mining have been in decline in the South, while tertiary and quaternary industries have attracted new migrants to the region’s urban and suburban areas. American Indians or Alaskan natives make up about 15 percent of Alaska’s population, for a total of roughly 106,000 people. 2. Photo courtesy of NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team. Real estate prices grew and the housing industry built one residential subdivision after another in the suburbs surrounding cities such as Las Vegas, Denver, and Salt Lake City. What region is it part of? Vancouver is a popular location for the film industry and is sometimes dubbed as “Hollywood North.” It is also growing in the biotechnology and software industries. Prior to 1830, the region's urban and industrial development was limited almost entirely to the Atlantic Coast in … The North American Plate is made up of a thick granitic core that extends from the Atlantic Ridge to the Pacific Plate. All three states have a large contingency of Hispanic residents, some of whom have descended from early pre–United States settlers, while others have come into the United States more recently across the long desert border between Mexico and the United States. This map shows the extent of the Corn Belt. The North is the least densely populated of any region in North America due to its brutally cold winters, short growing season, and poor soils. While manufacturing is not dead in the Northeastern Core, heavy industry has been in long-term decline. West of the Canadian Maritimes lies the province of Quebec, the heart of which is the St. Lawrence River valley, a lowland separating the Appalachian Mountains to the south from the inhospitable Canadian Shield to the north. In fact, nearly all the major cities of this region developed as places for the buying, selling, and processing agricultural products. The vast Empty Quarter in western Maine consists of five million acres of privately owned forest and no permanent human inhabitants. This is the smallest region in North America, but more importantly Canada. In April 2010, the New York Times reported that Arizona’s governor signed the nation’s toughest bill on illegal immigration into law, designed to identify, prosecute, and deport illegal immigrants (Archibold, R. C., 2011). Eastern Texas receives more rainfall from the Gulf of Mexico, and western Texas and the states of New Mexico and Arizona are quite arid and receive less rainfall. The economy of Texas used to be based on oil and natural gas, but it has since become more diversified. Large farming operations exist where water is available for irrigation. The region encompasses western Colorado; western Wyoming; western Montana; Idaho; Nevada; Utah; the eastern portions of Washington, Oregon, and California; and the southern portion of the Canadian Rockies. Business names with “Dixie” in them can be found throughout the South. Most of the early settlements in the region were small and were located close to the eastern coast. Another realm in the global core, North America consists of the United States and Canada. The Midwest and the Great Plains make up North America’s breadbasket. The dominant religion practiced by these nations is Christianity. Thousands of small earthquakes occur along the fault every year. Maine is the least densely populated state in this region; about 90 percent of its land is forested, making it the most forested of the fifty United States. Even today, most urban centers are located close to water. Other areas of the rural South are also among the poorest in the nation, including the Mississippi Delta and the lower Mississippi River valley. The Navajo tribe is the largest in the United States, with more than 100,000 members in Arizona alone and others in surrounding states. 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